Glossary


Letters: T, V
 
Tep Equivalent ton of petroleum. Conventional measuring unit of energy sources, equivalent to the thermal energy obtained from the combustion of one ton of petroleum. The conversion coefficients adopted by the Group are:
1 tep = 41.86 GJ
Electricity: 1 kWh = 860 Kcal = 0.000086 tep
Fuel oil: 1 ton = 0.98 tep
Diesel: 1 ton = 1.08 tep
GPL: 1 tonn = 1.10 tep
Natural Gas: 1000 m3 = 0.82 tep
 
Transformer A static electrical device (with no moving parts) that transfers electrical energy from one primary circuit to another secondary circuit, modifying its voltage and current. In its simplest form it is composed of a closed magnetic circuit made with ferrosilicon blades and two coils made by helically winding two conductors onto an insulating support.
 
Troposphere The lowest part of the atmosphere, between the ground and the stratosphere. This is the home of the most common meteorological phenomena.
 
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Any natural or anthropic organic compound that at a temperature of 20°C has a vapour tension of 10 Pascal or greater, or that has a corresponding volatility in particular conditions of use. They may contribute to the production of photochemical smog (see entry), with impacts on human health and the environment.
 
Vulcanization An irreversible thermal process in the solid phase through which the elastomers present in a compound pass from a prevalently 'plastic' state to one that is essentially 'elastic'. This is due to the formation of a series of bonds between the various polymeric chains that lead to the formation of three-dimensional molecular structures.