Estimates and assumptions

6. Estimates and assumptions

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions which, in some circumstances, are based on difficult and subjective judgments and estimates derived from historical experience and assumptions which, each time, are believed to be reasonable and realistic under the circumstances. Such estimates affect the reported amounts of some assets and liabilities, costs and revenues, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date.

The estimates and assumptions will generally refer to the measurement of the recoverable amounts of intangible assets, the definition of the useful lives of property, plant and equipment, the recoverability of receivables and the recognition and measurement of provisions. The estimates and assumptions are based upon data which reflects the current state of available knowledge.

Accounting policies of particular importance requiring a higher degree of judgment

The accounting policies involving a higher degree of judgment by management in making estimates and for which a change in the conditions underlying the assumptions could have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements are the following:


In accordance with the accounting policies applied in the preparation of the financial statements, goodwill is tested annually in order to assess whether there is an impairment that should be recorded in the income statement. In particular, the test involves the allocation of goodwill to cash-generating units and the determination of the relative recoverable amount, understood as being the higher of fair value and the value in use.

If the value in use is lower than the carrying amount of the cash-generating units, an impairment on the goodwill allocated to them should recognized. The allocation of goodwill to cash-generating units and the determination of their value in use involves estimates which depend on subjective valuations as well as on factors which could change over time with consequent and possibly significant effects on the assessment made by management.

Impairment of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets

In accordance with the accounting policies applied, property, plant and equipment and intangible assets are tested to ascertain if there is an impairment, which should be recognized, when there are indications that would imply difficulties in recovering the net carrying amount through the use of the asset. The verification of the existence of these indications requires management to make judgments based on available internal or external information and historical experience. Moreover, when it has been determined that there could be a potential impairment, that impairment must be determined by reference to suitable valuation techniques. The proper identification of elements indicating the existence of a potential impairment and the estimates used to determine it depend on subjective judgments and factors which can vary over time and influence the assessments and estimates made by management.

Deferred income taxes

The recognition of deferred tax assets is made on the basis of expectations of future income. The measurement of future income for purposes of recognizing deferred income taxes depends on factors which can vary over time and determine significant effects on the measurement of deferred tax assets.

Provisions for other liabilities and charges

Accruals are made for legal and fiscal liabilities and charges that will probably require an outflow of resources. The amount of the provisions recorded in the financial statements relating to such liabilities and charges represents the best estimate at that time made by management. This estimate involves assumptions which depend on factors which can change over time and which could therefore have significant effects on the current estimates made by management in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements.