Glossary


Letter: C
 
Calendering Operation that permits a sheet of rubber of a constant thickness to be obtained, or to cover one or both sides of a length of fabric with a constant thickness of rubber.
 
Calorific power Quantity of thermal energy (or heat) released by a determined mass of fuel burning in standard conditions. Subdivided into Superior Calorific Power (SCP) representing all theenergy developed in combustion, and Inferior Calorific Power (ICP) which instead represents the difference between the total heat released and that lost through the evaporation of the water produced during combustion. Usually expressed in Joules perkilogramme (J/kg) or kilocalories per kilogramme (Kcal/kg) for solid fuels and liquids and in Joules per cubic metre (J/m3) or kilocalories per cubic metre (Kcal/m3) for gases.
 
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Colourless, odourless and flavourless component of the atmosphere. One of the end products of the process of combustion of materials containing carbon. Contributes to the so-called 'greenhouse effect'. (see entry)
 
Chlorofluorocarbons Also known as CFCs or Freon. Practically odourless and non-inflammable substances highly suitable for use as fluids in the cooling circuits of refrigerators and air conditioners and as propellants in aerosol canisters, as solvents in the electronics and mechanical industries and as reagents in the chemical industry. The widespread use of CFCs (in particular in the '60s and '70s) has led to their accumulation in the atmosphere and their diffusion towards the stratosphere where the action of ultraviolet radiation has provoked a progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and the consequent drafting of anumber of international agreements regarding the gradual outlawing of these substances. (see entry)
 
Corporate Social Responsibility The integration on a voluntary basis of the companies' social and ecological issues with their commercial operations and their relations with stakeholders.